The Infinite Zenith

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Revisiting the Nishizumi Style to Understand Shiho and Kuromorimine in Girls und Panzer Through Martial Arts: An Exercise in Sportsmanship and Good Faith

知彼知己,百戰不殆;不知彼而知己,一勝一負;不知彼,不知己,每戰必敗。

“If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle”. Sun Tzu’s most famous remarks about warfare hold true in virtually every field, from team sports to business. However, like most treatises, applicability is also situational, and despite my deep respect for Sun Tzu, I also accept that it might not always be a catch-all in every situation. While reading through my blog during the Victoria Day long weekend, I came upon an older post I wrote some years earlier. According to this post, I was having insomnia that summer night, and my mind turned to the question of how the Nishizumi Style could be bested by practitioners of Sun Tzu’s Art of War: earlier that year, a massive flame war on AnimeSuki resulted when one Akeiko “Daigensui” Sumeragi had held the position that Shiho Nishizumi and the Nishizumi Style had been the proper way of practising martial arts. Arguing that Miho’s approach had been the “‘gentle’ version of sports [that ignored] the martial of martial arts”, Sumeragi supposed that the true meaning of martial arts entails the expectation of “injuries and possible deaths to happen, as with any activity”, which are the “essence of traditional martial arts”. As a result of these claims, AnimeSuki descended into chaos as individuals argued against Sumeragi’s misguided interpretation of martial arts, and inevitably, it became difficult to separate Sumeragi from the Nishizumi Style and its practitioners. Indeed, when I wrote my own post about how the Nishizumi Style was limited by its inflexibility, I had intended my post to demonstrate that Sumeragi’s interpretation was flawed. However, the resulting conclusions I drew would also prove unfair to Shiho and Maho Nishizum: Girls und Panzer is, after all, an anime about sportsmanship. In the aftermath of Girls und Panzer, viewers would indulge in schadenfreude upon watching Ooarai defeat Black Forest to win the championship. Their loss was well-deserved on the virtue that Shiho, Maho and Erika had been unfriendly towards Miho, and consequently, got what was coming to them. This mindset is inconsistent with the messages Girls und Panzer had sought to convey: time and time again, Miho befriends those she meets in Panzerfahren, reminding her teammates and opponents alike that friendship counts more than pure victory. While the lingering negative perception of Black Forest has lingered over the years, the themes in Girls und Panzer make it clear that extending Shiho, Maho and Erika this courtesy is also a necessary exercise. Consequently, In this post, I will explore the core tenants of the Nishizumi Style, where real-world martial arts fits in with the style and how Shiho, Maho and Erika ultimately remain worthy of the viewer’s respect despite their initial appearances.

Because the Nishizumi Style underlies this discussion, it is appropriate to begin with understanding what the style itself entails. Unfortunately, Girls und Panzer only offers glimpses into the style: other schools and their students mention that it emphasis is on firepower and precision, of rigid discipline, of setting up a formation to create an impenetrable wall and luring opponents into range for a single, devastating strike that simultaneously saps them of their materiel and morale. Overwhelming weaker schools and obliterating them outright, the Nishizumi Style is derived off the Panzerkeil tactic, where formations are lead by the heavily armoured Tiger Is, followed by the more mobile Panthers and with the lighter Panzer IV and IIIs at the edges. This variant of the armoured spearhead provides advantages in allowing practitioners to absorb damage out front, and the number of tanks in the column meant opposing forces would need to re-range their guns constantly. At the same time, this formation concentrates firepower to a very precise point. The Nishizumi Style similarly places an emphasis on having heavy armour to shrug off damage long enough for highly accurate gunners to concentrate their fire on an enemy and devastate them in a short period of time, all the while acting in perfect unison. Skill and communication come together to form a foe that appears indefatigable. Weaker enemies collapse in terror, and more skillful foes must move with caution. In practise, the Nishizumi Style is dependent on setting up and maintaining this cohesion, as well as counting on the psychological intimidation from tanks that can apparently shrug off everything one throws at it. At the same time, practitioners of the Nishizumi Style do not always give the same level of attention to training for situations where they cannot get set up or are disrupted mid-formation. Having established how the Nishizumi Style operates, it is unsurprising that Sun Tzu’s methods, of constantly watching an enemy and striking weak spots would be sufficient for one to overcome the style. The key here is patience and mobility: the armoured spearhead is weakest at its corners, and striking here creates enough confusion to break up the formation. With the right caution and positioning, any team that survives the Nishizumi Style’s initial onslaught could subsequently break them apart, sow confusion and begin capitalising on the Tiger I and II’s inferior mobility to whittle down their forces in the long game. This is, of course, contingent on teams possessing the will to survive: Sun Tzu stated that an enemy that is strong everywhere will also be weak everywhere. Conversely, when an opponent has not understood the Nishizumi Style, it can seem overwhelming to fight a foe that steadily advances without taking damage from one’s own efforts. This is where the Nishizumi Style’s fearsome reputation comes from, and for the better part of a decade, had served Black Forest very well, at least until Miho’s fateful decision to save her teammate from a tank that’d fallen into the river.

  • For this discussion, I’ve chosen to draw a great deal of material from the supplementary materials in addition to what was seen in-show: I’ve previously indicated that Girls und Panzer is a masterpiece, a perfect score for its execution and themes. The only strike I have at all about this series is common to all series that I enjoyed; there aren’t enough episodes, and this series would’ve deserved a pure slice-of-life spinoff. While no such animated adaptation of such exists, there is a manga titled Girls und Panzer: Motto Rabu Rabu Sakusen desu! (Girls und Panzer: It’s the More Love Love Operation!) which deals with life at Ooarai outside of Panzerfahren.

With the Nishizumi Style now defined, the next question becomes whether or not its tenants are inconsistent with Girls und Panzer‘s themes, and the essence of martial arts itself. Shiho, after all, has stated numerous times that the Nishizumi Style is about attaining the ultimate victory, and of never backing down. This emphasis on pursuit of victory is seemingly single-minded, and contrary to martial arts itself. However, this particular aspect of the Nishizumi Style comes from limited dialogue in Girls und Panzer: Shiho’s lecture to Miho, and later, Maho’s promise to decimate Miho, provides an incomplete picture of the Nishizumi Style as being brutal, ruthless and even bloodthirsty. This paints a false picture of the Nishizumi Style and of Black Forest: it is often forgotten that Girls und Panzer also suggests, through Darjeeling and Katyusha, that Black Forest is “boring” to fight. A foe that is boring would imply a style that is predictable, and moreover, boring does not correlate with terrifying. A foe willing to absolutely crush an enemy would be terrifying. Boring, on the other hand, suggests a by-the-book, disciplined and rigid set of patterns. The discipline in Black Forest and their interpretation of the Nishizumi Style, is better described as a martial art more than as a team sport: discipline lies at the heart of all martial arts, and practitioners train themselves pursue excellence through practising a set of techniques endlessly. The founder of Gōjū-ryū, Chōjun Miyagi, taught his practitioners that karate was a state of mind, that strength was found through intellect, and that the ultimate goal of any martial art is to build character and conquer adversity. Through not strength of force, but strength of the mind, one finds freedom. Strength is always open to interpretation, but as a martial art, the Nishizumi Style would similarly have a focus on mental development in addition to physical development. The ultimate goal of practising any martial art, whether it be Panzerfahren or Karatedo, is to cultivate resilience, confidence and self-control: the true martial artist knows when to hold a punch or kick back, never allowing their emotions to get the better of them.

  • While technically a spin-off, Girls und Panzer: Motto Rabu Rabu Sakusen desu! simply exaggerates traits among the characters, the same way World Witches: Take Off! and Azur Lane: Slow Ahead! exaggerates personalities for the sake of humour. Consequently, I hold the manga as having enough validity to indicate how the characters would act in more light-hearted, humourous circumstances. This is taken in conjunction with the fact that Girls und Panzer‘s themes are about companionship, discovery, growth and sportsmanship: to suppose that the Nishizumi Style and Shiho opposes this would be to contradict what the series had aimed to show: that through friendship, one finds their way, and through finding their way, people simultaneously learn to respect tradition and innovate.

The Nishizumi Style is counted as tedious by other schools, and to an external observer, their emphasis on precision, structure and order can feel difficult to understand. As a martial art, however, the Nishizumi Style is consistent with the precepts and principles in things like Gōjū-ryū karate. Nowhere is this more apparent than kata (literally “form”), which can speak volumes to what a given school believes in. Gōjū-ryū (hard-soft) karate emphasises a combination of hard, linear motions and graceful circular motions. Saifa (tear and destroy) consists entirely of harsh strikes, while Seiunchin (control and pull) focuses on circular grabs and sweeps. At first glance, Gōjū-ryū appears be a rigid style: there are conventions that practitioners follow (for instance, we only chamber our inactive hand under the armpit, and all of our kicks have the same starting position to maximise surprise). However, Miyagi believed that Gōjū-ryū was a state of mind. Much as how one fluidly switches between hard and soft even in the same kata, one should always be ready to adapt. Gōjū-ryū seeks to subdue and create openings, to be rigid when required, and to be graceful where appropriate. Having trained in this hybrid style for over twenty years, I convey to students that Gōjū-ryū focuses on adaptability, using an opponents force against them and keeping distance. In a real-world scenario, the objective isn’t to put one’s opponent in the hospital, but rather, to create an opening and de-escalate a situation as swiftly as possible. With this being said, those who assert that to take martial arts seriously is to bludgeon an opponent to death demonstrate themselves unfit for the practise. Supposing that the Nishizumi Style was written to be a more traditional interpretation of martial arts, I imagine that Shiho would espouse similar virtues as a part of the Nishizumi Style, expecting her students to similarly fight with integrity, restraint and order in matches to uphold the school’s honour. It should become clear that the Nishizumi Style is most certainly not ruthless or bloodthirsty, although Shiho is stymied by her comparatively poor communication skills, which has in part contributed to a misunderstanding of her character, as well as the Nishizumi Style as a whole.

  • While this post has me admitting that my assumptions about the Nishizumi Style eight years earlier were not entirely correct, and that a cursory glance shows I am thinking along the same lines as Sumeragi, I will state that I’ll agree with Sumeragi the day Hell freezes over. Sumeragi became aggrieved during discussions and eventually resorted to ad hominem attacks, claiming himself an expert in martial arts and dismissing others because he’d been supposedly being in an occupation which “merges ruthlessness with situation awareness”. I usually see self-aggrandisation as a sure sign of someone who’s clearly lost the argument, and looking back, I would hold that had Sumeragi not succumbed to emotion and the desire to be right over being civil, a much more interesting and reasoned discussion could have been held. This is unlikely, however, since Sumeragi has since been banned from virtually every online community of note (most recently, from Sufficient Velocity).

Going purely from Girls und Panzer‘s animated incarnations alone, Shiho is a cold and rigid woman with a stated belief in victory rooted in skill, and that strength matters. Her words are terse, and she appears to have a distant relationship with both her daughters, focusing on her pursuit of martial arts over family. This is a misconception that results from Girls und Panzer‘s short runtime, and supplementary materials indicate that Shiho is simply the sort of individual who takes everything she does seriously, following a rigid pattern of logic and procedure to get things done. This is most evident in her parenting of Miho and Maho: she went to great lengths to look after the two, even bathing both until they were thirteen, and it turns out that, because she spends so little time with both on account of her being wrapped up in work, has little understanding of what Miho and Maho are like outside of Panzerfahren. To counteract this, Shiho resorts to books to help her out, and in a hilarious series of misunderstandings, Shiho tries to bond with Maho by cuddling with her and giving her a credit card, which confuses Maho totally. Later, when Miho returns home to speak with Shiho about the tournament, Shiho decides to throw a full-scale party complete with fireworks, frightening Miho enough to cancel her visit outright. The TV series doesn’t portray these events, but there are hints that despite her harsh words, Shiho does care for Miho; she smiles at Miho’s victory, evidently pleased that her youngest daughter has found her own way while at once, respecting family traditions and making something of herself on her own skill, and in the movie, angrily reprimands the MEXT official when he makes an offhand remark about Ooarai’s victory being luck. It is clear that in spite of outward appearances, Shiho cares very deeply for Miho and Maho. Given what viewers see in Girls und Panzer, then, it is clear that Shiho’s dislike of emotion simply comes from not fully understanding it fully; she sees it as something that acts as an impediment to her goals, and indeed, I see hints of myself in Shiho.

Unlike Shiho, however, I count myself a more effective communicator: her beliefs in strength and victory on their own might sound cold and impersonal, but with a wider perspective, it turns out that they are not problematic in any way. Strength extends to mental resilience, having the toughness to endure adversity and persist towards a solution. Victory is the act of completing one’s goal. It is not about rendering an opponent incapable of fighting, destroying their hope or crushing their spirit, it is simply achieving what one intended to do. The summation of strength and victory can therefore be taken to mean “having the discipline and resolve to accomplish one’s aspirations”. Because Shiho accepts Miho’s victory as well-earned, genuine, it stands to reason that since Miho found her own resilience (strength) to bring her friends to win and save their school (victory), Miho still achieves what the core of Shiho expected her daughter to. While she might not use the same tactics on the battlefield (precision and always moving forward), Miho nonetheless remains faithful to what her mother had taught her, and in this moment, Shiho is proud to have Miho as her daughter. This interpretation of Shiho’s credos, and the Nishizumi Style, paints Shiho and her expectations in a positive light, consistent with what themes Girls und Panzer strove to leave with viewers. It also leaves me wishing that there was a bit more to Girls und Panzer; the series has been about positivity in self-discovery, and given that all of Miho’s opponents come out of a match respecting her, it is not particularly surprising that the seemingly-cold and unfeeling Nishizumi-style is actually an honourable martial art. Further to this, Shiho herself isn’t a bad parent by any stretch, being a decent person who simply struggles to convey how she feels. While the TV series hasn’t shown this more clearly, this is where Girls und Panzer: Das Finale could step up to the plate. We are satisfied that Shiho still loves Miho, but Miho still remains apprehensive about talking to her mother. Consequently, one brilliant way to wrap up Das Finale, and unequivocally show that Miho has grown, would be to have her summon up the courage to speak with Shiho face-to-face, to put things out in the open and face one’s challenges rather than shy away from them. To have Das Finale accomplish this would be a massive triumph for the series from a thematic perspective. Through this post, I’ve reached the conclusion that the me of eight years earlier had been mistaken in my earlier thoughts on the Nishizumi Style. I’ve stated this on numerous occasions, but I don’t mind being proven wrong, especially where it leads to interesting conversation: I’m sure the me of eight years earlier would have appreciated such a discussion – one that is rooted in rationality, logic and evidence.

13 responses to “Revisiting the Nishizumi Style to Understand Shiho and Kuromorimine in Girls und Panzer Through Martial Arts: An Exercise in Sportsmanship and Good Faith

  1. BleedingUranium May 27, 2021 at 16:45

    Fantastic read as always, though I’m surprised Little Army wasn’t brought up at all in this. If you haven’t, I highly recommend both Little Army (which has an official translation) and Little Army II. The former is more relevant to this topic, but both are stellar. 🙂

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    • infinitezenith May 28, 2021 at 21:36

      I’ve heard of Little Army, although having fallen incredibly far behind, I can’t say I’m terribly familiar with it. If memory serves, I do remember enjoying the first few chapters; it’s an alternate version of Girls und Panzer with minor differences in how characters are portrayed, and perhaps it might be high time to see if I could catch up!

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      • David Birr May 29, 2021 at 08:36

        Ummm, no; Little Army is a prequel to Girls und Panzer. Six years prior to the main series, ten-year-old Miho gets together with three other elementary schoolers to practice tankery … and clashes with her mother’s ruthless notions of proper sensha-dō. And wow, is Shiho harsh. “The Nishizumi school values two things: ‘Victory’ and ‘might.’ To move forward, without succumbing to mercy. TO WIN AT ALL COSTS.

        Little Army II begins almost immediately after Ōarai wins the tournament, as Emi and Hitomi, two of Miho’s friends from Little Army, reunite at a high school where the tankery program has basically gone down the drain. It’s become merely the excuse a bunch of delinquents use for their gang fights – brawling with tanks’ spare parts as melee weapons, not battling in full tanks … because they don’t have any complete tanks. (This isn’t a spoiler; it’s all in the first chapter.) Can Emi and Hitomi create a real tankery team, that might even be able to put up a good showing against Miho’s Ōarai?

        I was able to get both volumes of Little Army in dead-tree, but Little Army II seems to be available in the West only online.

        I think the alternate version you described is simply the manga adaptation of the main series.

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        • infinitezenith May 29, 2021 at 11:28

          I must’ve gotten the two mixed up: Ribbon Warrior is the alternate universe spinoff that I was thinking of. The manga is also different enough from the actual series to be counted a spin-off. After a glance at the synopsis, Little Army is what I am looking for: I got in a few chapters and enjoyed it before falling behind. Ribbon Warrior, on the other hand, I only know what the premise is and never got around to check it out in full. My local bookstore says Little Army‘s first and second volumes exist in English but are out of stock, so I’ll probably have to get creative to check them out. This is the price of having so much going on at once: I begin to forget the smaller details!

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  2. David Birr May 28, 2021 at 06:49

    There’s an exceptionally sad cartoon one artist created, picturing something that could have happened during Der Film. Miho comes to the Nishizumi home to get transfer documents signed. While she’s talking to Maho and they pass by their mother’s office, Shiho calls out, asking Maho if they have guests. Maho responds that it is “only a friend.”

    Where the cartoonist diverged from canon is that the interior of Shiho’s office is shown – hung with a banner which I’m told reads, “Welcome home, Miho.” And there’s a large bag marked “Boco Museum,” presumably holding at least one gift purchased there. Shiho sighs in disappointment when told the visitor is “only a friend.”

    As I’ve noted about this cartoon on two different sites, “Neither of her daughters trusted her enough any longer to even imagine she might have realized she was wrong and wanted to make amends.”

    https://safebooru.org/index.php?page=post&s=view&id=2328095

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    • BleedingUranium May 28, 2021 at 18:50

      Nooooo that’s so sad 😥

      Like

    • infinitezenith May 28, 2021 at 21:44

      Because the themes of Girls und Panzer is precisely about bringing people closer together and understanding that the battlefield and friendship can co-exist, the given comic’s interpretation is definitely a valid one. As far as I can recall, Maho’s personality is strictly in keeping with appearances, and she was trying to do what she felt was best for Miho, feeling perhaps that Miho was not ready to sit down for a face-to-face with Shiho just yet. Shiho’s always been presented as being not one for words, but experience has found that these people are simply not as good with expressing themselves; in the presence of those who they are comfortable with, seemingly cold and aloof people open up and can prove unexpectedly warm.

      This is why I’ve expressed my hopes that Das Finale would have this reconciliation appear: early on, Girls und Panzer had Mako’s grandmother openly support her in her Panzerfahren activities after seeing that Mako finally had friends, and similarly, Hana’s mother turns around and accepts that Hana’s Panzerfahren is, in fact, allowing her to be more creative with flower arrangement, despite having turned Hana away after growing shocked at learning Hana was seemingly abandoning a family tradition. It therefore makes the most sense to have Miho achieve the same as well – this is, after all, most consistent with the themes Girls und Panzer sought to convey!

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  3. Mika68 May 29, 2021 at 13:11

    Nice read. I do believe the same about the Nishizumi Style, there should be something positive about it in the end.

    I do hope for a wholesome end for Das Finale. Hopefully Nishizumi family to finally reconcile and the kids will continue the family’s tradition in a brighter way. Now that we have Mako’s grandma and Hana’s mother give the full support to their daughters pursuing Panzerfahren, Yukari finally making real friends, there’s no way the Nishizumi family cannot be changed and moved on. There are signs that Shiho is growing more accepting toward Miho during the TV series and Der Film, there are more chances that they will be reconcile in the end.

    Miho’s homecoming scene in Der Film is the most meaningful to me in all aspects, and one of them is a scene showing a subtle communication between Miho and Shiho. Though Maho said she brought “a friend”, I bet Shiho knew it was Miho, it was “mother instincts” that Shiho realize it, just that she was allowing it anyway. Moreover, a present from Oarai was shown on the table, though it’s in a few seconds, I guess it is a sign showing that Miho loves her mother too.

    Finally, I’d love to say I usually come back to rewatch the series or listening to the OST when I have time. Considering how much Girls und Panzer has given me so much positivity and inspiration whenever I’m having a slump, I honestly feel thankful for it.

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    • infinitezenith June 4, 2021 at 21:25

      Positivity is such a key part of Girls und Panzer that it would be outrageous not to have Shiho and Miho reconcile properly, and the signs you’ve mentioned are indeed a strong sign that the series is likely to head in that direction. This entire series is awesome for many reasons, and it’s great to hear that the music is also something you enjoy 🙂 The military marches are fantastic, but oftentimes, the gentle slice-of-life songs are overlooked, and those speak volumes to the sort of aesthetic the series wishes to convey to us.

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      • David Birr June 5, 2021 at 07:44

        With regard to music other than the marches, I’d like to point out two clever touches. One: As grim-faced Katyusha strides forward to meet Miho before the tournament battle, the music playing is, ironically, “Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy” from The Nutcracker.

        Two: Touchingly, during the Ōarai girls’ preparation montage in Der Film before the battle, a stringed instrument strums “Home! Sweet Home!” expressing their determination to get their school-ship back. The same tune continues, a bit muted, as the scene shifts to Darjeeling sending out her “Friends of Ōarai” rally message.

        Another matter, not dealing with official Girls und Panzer music: Back when I’d merely heard of the series, I felt idle curiosity, and once I chanced across a GuP anime music video on YouTube, I checked it out. The song was “Union” by the Swedish metal band Sabaton, and it leads off with a quote from Sun Tzu that, except for the gender-specificity, fits Miho like a custom-tailored glove. “Regard your soldiers as your children, and they will follow you into the deepest valleys. Look upon them as your own beloved sons, and they will stand by you even unto death.”

        And thus, in one fell swoop I became not only a GuP fan, but a Sabaton fan.

        Like

  4. Mika68 June 5, 2021 at 10:40

    I’m loving the slice-of-life music more, because it is really connecting me to GUP and holding my interest in the long run.
    A clever touch for me is from episode 6 where Maho was lending the helicopter to Oarai, and Maho walked past Miho and Miho was saying “sister”, until the helicopter was flying off to the evening sky. The scene was in a minute or so, but brilliantly depicting the perplexing relationship between the sisters. I couldn’t help but feeling moody for a while before getting to the next episode. This is a turning point of how I see GUP, from a mere play-for-fun show to something more valuable.

    The little tune starts from 0:30.

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  5. Pingback: #TheJCS Jon Spencer showcase: June 2021 Edition – Mechanical Anime Reviews

  6. Pingback: Revisiting Girls und Panzer: Answering The Validity of Compassion After Eight – Was Miho Right? | The Infinite Zenith

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